Microsoft SQL Server 2012 Enterprise 4 Core license edition allows you to provide access to an unlimited amount of users to your database environment. The enterprise edition gives you full control over your instances, allowing you to exceed the 64GB memory cap that exists within standard, while letting you set your own limitations on how much it can process at a time through the Resource Governor. It is the quintessential tool for data warehouses servers to have the flexibility to adjust to the dynamics of every day data needs.
One top 10 list of Enterprise advantages
Enterprise lets you use:
More than 64GB memory per instance. This is an extremely important limit, especially for data warehouse servers, which feel about memory and CPU like marathon runners do about pancakes and syrup.
Partition switching. This allows you to very quickly load or archive huge chunks of data in an online operation.
AlwaysOn Availability Groups, especially for offloading read-only workloads to secondary replicas (and, you know have multiple standby instances ready to recover you from a disaster).
Resource Governor. This allows you to customize limits on CPU and memory consumption. This is a HUGE deal, and shops are continuously surprised and disappointed to find that this is not a Standard feature. With Resource Governor, you can map a specific workload or set of workloads to a resource pool, to prevent it taking up too much of the system. These limits can be configured in real time, as they should be.
Columnstore indexes. This new (ish) type of specialized index can massively reduce IO consumption. This is great news for data warehouses, that renowned resource hog.
Online reindexing for tables with large data objects (like varchar(max)).
Data warehouse improvements like star join query optimizations, and parallel query processing on partitioned tables and indices.
Advanced Adapters and Advanced Transforms for SSIS, including “Dimension processing destination adapter”, “Data mining query transformation”, and “Fuzzy grouping and lookup transformations”.
Change Data Capture, which lets you easily track inserts/updates/deletes on user tables. Fairly simple, efficient, auto cleanup, configurable.
SSRS data driven subscription. You can dynamically determine your recipients, parameters, etc., each time the subscription runs.